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Title: Assessing variability in the ratio of metal concentrations measured by DGT-type passive samplers and spot sampling in European seawaters
Authors: German Rodriguez, Jose; Amouroux, Isabelle; Belzunce-Segarra, Maria Jesus; Bersuder, Philippe; Bolam, Thi; Caetano, Miguel and Carvalho, Ines; Correia dos Santos, Margarida M.; Fones, Gary R.; Gonzalez, Jean-Louis; Guesdon, Stephane; Larreta, Joana and Marras, Barbara; McHugh, Brendan; Menet-Nedelec, Florence and Menchaca, Iratxe; Millan Gabet, Vanessa; Montero, Natalia and Nolan, Martin; Regan, Fiona; Robinson, Craig D.; Rosa, Nuno and Rodrigo Sanz, Marta; Schintu, Marco; White, Blanaid; Zhang, Hao
Abstract: The current study evaluates the effect of seawater physico-chemical characteristics on the relationship between the concentration of metals measured by Diffusive Gradients in Thin films (DGT) passive samplers (i.e., DGTlabile concentration) and the concentrations measured in discrete water samples. Accordingly, Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to measure the total dissolved metal concentrations in the discrete water samples and the labile metal concentrations obtained by DGT samplers; additionally, lead and cadmium conditional labile fractions were determined by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (ASV) and total dissolved nickel was measured by Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (CSV). It can be concluded that, in general, the median ratios of DGT/ICP and DGT/ASV(CSV) were lower than 1, except for Ni (median ratio close to 1) and Zn (higher than 1). This indicates the importance of speciation and time-integrated concentrations measured using passive sampling techniques, which is in line with the WFD suggestions for improving the chemical assessment of waterbodies. It is the variability in metal content in waters rather than environmental conditions to which the variability of the ratios can be attributed. The ratios were not significantly affected by the temperature, salinity, pH, oxygen, DOC or SPM, giving a great confidence for all the techniques used. Within a regulatory context such as the EU Water Framework Directive this is a great advantage, since the simplicity of not needing to use corrections to minimize the effects of environmental variables could help in implementing DGTs within monitoring networks. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). the discrete water samples and the labile metal concentrations obtained by DGT samplers; additionally, lead and cadmium conditional labile fractions were determined by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (ASV) and total dissolved nickel was measured by Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (CSV). It can be concluded that, in general, the median ratios of DGT/ICP and DGT/ASV(CSV) were lower than 1, except for Ni (median ratio close to 1) and Zn (higher than 1). This indicates the importance of speciation and time-integrated concentrations measured using passive sampling techniques, which is in line with the WFD suggestions for improving the chemical assessment of waterbodies. It is the variability in metal content in waters rather than environmental conditions to which the variability of the ratios can be attributed. The ratios were not significantly affected by the temperature, salinity, pH, oxygen, DOC or SPM, giving a great confidence for all the techniques used. Within a regulatory context such as the EU Water Framework Directive this is a great advantage, since the simplicity of not needing to use corrections to minimize the effects of environmental variables could help in implementing DGTs within monitor
Keywords: EU Water Framework Directive; Diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT); Passive samplers; THIN-FILMS DGT; TRACE-METALS; DIFFUSIVE GRADIENTS; CHEMICAL SPECIATION; NATURAL-WATERS; SEA; BIOAVAILABILITY; CONTAMINATION; ENVIRONMENTS; CADMIUM
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: ELSEVIER
Type: Article
Language: 
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147001
URI: http://dspace.azti.es/handle/24689/1214
ISSN: 0048-9697
E-ISSN: 1879-1026
Funder: MONITOOL project
Interreg Atlantic Area Transnational Cooperation Programme 2014-2020
Scottish Government-Marine Scotland (United Kingdom)
Foras na Mara-Marine Environment and Food Safety Services (Ireland)
Consejo Insular de Aguas de Gran Canaria (Spain)
Viceconsejeria Medioambiente del Gobierno de Canarias (Spain)
Scottish Environment Protection Agency (United Kingdom)
Environmental Protection Agency (Ireland)United States Environmental Protection Agency
Agence Francaise pour la Biodiversite (France)
URA Agencia Vasca del Agua (Spain)
Agencia Portuguesa do Ambiente (Portugal)
CQE-IST projects [UIDB/00100/2020, UIDP/00100/2020, UID/QUI/00100/2013, UID/QUI/00100/2019]
Appears in Publication types:Artículos científicos



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