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Title: Method for quantifying NSAIDs and clofibric acid in aqueous samples, lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) roe, and zebrafish (Danio rerio) eleutheroembryos and evaluation of their bioconcentration in zebrafish eleutheroembryos
Authors: Molina-Fernandez, N.; Perez-Conde, C.; Rainieri, S.; Sanz-Landaluze, J.
Citation: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, 2017, 24, 10907-10918
Abstract: Pharmaceuticals such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and lipid regulators are being repeatedly detected at low concentrations (pg.mL(-1)-ng.mL(-1)) in the environment. A large fraction of these compounds are ionizable. Ionized compounds show different physico-chemical properties and environmental behavior in comparison to their neutral analogs; as a consequence, the quantification methods currently available, based on the neutral molecules, might not be suitable to detect the corresponding ionized compounds. To overcome this problem, we developed a specific analytical method to quantify NSAIDs and lipid regulators (i.e., ibuprofen, diclofenac, naproxen, and clofibric acid) and their ionized compounds. This method is based on three steps: (1) the extraction of the organic compounds with an organic solvent assisted with an ultrasonic probe, (2) the cleaning of the extracts with a dispersive SPE with C-18, and (3) the determination of the chemical compounds by GC-MS (prior derivatization of the analytes). We demonstrated that the proposed method can successfully quantify the pharmaceuticals and their ionized compounds in aqueous samples, lumpfish eggs, and zebrafish eleutheroembryos. Additionally, it allows the extraction and the cleanup of extracts from small samples (0.010 g of wet weight in pools of 20 larvae) and complex matrixes (due to high lipid content) and can be used as a basis for bioaccumulation assays performed with zebrafish eleutheroembryos in alternative to OECD test 305.
Keywords: Zebrafish eleutheroembryos; Bioconcentration; NSAIDs; Clofibric acid; Cleanup; GC-MS; NONSTEROIDAL ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS; CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS-SPECTROMETRY; PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS; WASTE-WATER SAMPLES; PERFORMANCE LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY; ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS; GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY; HOLLOW-FIBER; PHASE MICROEXTRACTION; ORGANIC-CHEMICALS
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: SPRINGER HEIDELBERG
Type: Article
Language: English
DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-6671-8
URI: http://dspace.azti.es/handle/24689/470
ISSN: 0944-1344
E-ISSN: 1614-7499
Funder: Ministry of Economy and Competitivity (Project SAFEFOOD) [CTQ2014-54801-C2-1-R]
Comunidad Autonoma of Madrid (Project AVANSECAL) [S2013/ABI-3028]
Universidad Complutense for supporting the research group ``Determinacion de Trazas y Especiacion.��
Spanish Ministry of Education for the FPU predoctoral fellowship [AP2010-0740]
Appears in Publication types:Artículos científicos



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