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Title: Costs and benefits to European shipping of ballast-water and hull-fouling treatment: Impacts of native and non-indigenous species
Authors: Fernandes, Jose A.; Santos, Lionel; Vance, Thomas; Fileman, Tim; Bishop, John D. D.; Viard, Frederique; Merino, Gorka; Buisman, Erik; Austen, Melanie C.; Smith, David; Queiros, Ana M.
Citation: MARINE POLICY, 2016, 64, 148-155
Abstract: Maritime transport and shipping are impacted negatively by biofouling, which can result in increased fuel consumption. Thus, costs for fouling reduction can be considered an investment to reduce fuel consumption. Anti-fouling measures also reduce the rate of introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS). Further mitigation measures to reduce the transport of NIS within ballast water and sediments impose additional costs. The estimated operational cost of NIS mitigation measures may represent between 1.6\% and 4\% of the annual operational cost for a ship operating on European seas, with the higher proportional costs in small ships. However, fouling by NIS may affect fuel consumption more than fouling by native species due to differences in species' life-history traits and their resistance to antifouling coatings and pollution. Therefore, it is possible that the cost of NIS mitigation measures could be smaller than the cost from higher fuel consumption arising from fouling by NIS. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Non-indigenous species; Native; Biofouling; Ballast water; Economic impact; Maritime; Shipping; Mitigation measures; CLIMATE-CHANGE; TRANSPORT; VECTOR; CLASSIFICATION; INTRODUCTIONS; BIODIVERSITY; MANAGEMENT; INDICATOR; SHIPS; ERROR
Issue Date: 2016
Type: Article
Language: English
DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2015.11.015
ISSN: 0308-597X
E-ISSN: 1872-9460
Funder: European Community's Seventh Framework Programme \[266445]
Interreg IVa Marinexus Programme
Appears in Publication types:Artículos científicos

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