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Title: Solid State Fermentation as a Tool to Stabilize and Improve Nutritive Value of Fruit and Vegetable Discards: Effect on Nutritional Composition, In Vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Organic Matter Digestibility
Authors: Ibarruri, Jone; Goiri, Idoia; Cebrian, Marta; Garcia-Rodriguez, Aser
Abstract: Simple Summary A huge quantity of fruits and vegetables are wasted every year, having a negative impact in both the economy and the environment. Valorizing them as animals' feeds would contribute to reduce feeding cost and, at the same time, would be in the interest of prevention of resource wastage and better economy of the processing plants. The aim of this study was, on the one side, to transform fruit and vegetable discards using solid state fermentation (SSF) to a stabilized product enriched in protein and, on the other side, to evaluate its suitability for ruminants feeding by determining the in vitro organic matter digestibility, fermentation characteristics and methane production of the control and the fermented product. As a result, it was found that SSF reduced the organic matter and reducing sugar content of the fermented product, while crude protein and fiber fractions were increased. In conclusion, SSF led to a stabilized feed ingredient enriched in protein, but at the expense of digestibility reduction. This research aimed to evaluate in vitro organic matter digestibility, fermentation characteristics and methane production of fruit and vegetable discards processed by solid state fermentation (SSF) by Rhizopus sp. Mixtures were composed of approximately 28\% citric fruits, 35\% other fruits and 37\% vegetables. Fruit and vegetables were processed and fermented to obtain a stabilized product. Nutritional characterization and in vitro ruminal fermentation tests were performed to determine the effect of fungal bioconversion on digestibility, end products and gas production kinetics. Results indicate that SSF reduced organic matter and reducing sugars, while it increased crude protein and neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent insoluble protein. The in vitro gas production showed that SSF led to a reduction of the organic matter digestibility (p < 0.001), short chain fatty acids (SCFA; p = 0.003) and CH4 (p = 0.002). SSF reduced the gas production from the insoluble fraction (p = 0.001), without modifying the production rate (p = 0.676) or the lag time (p = 0.574). Regarding SCFA profile, SSF increased acetic (p = 0.020) and decreased propionic (p = 0.004) and butyric (p = 0.006) acids proportions, increasing acetic to propionic (p = 0.008) and acetic plus butyric to propionic (p = 0.011) ratios. SSF succeeded in obtaining a stabilized material enriched in protein, but at the expense of a reduction of protein availability and organic matter digestibility. These changes should be considered before including them in a ruminant's rations.
Keywords: circular economy; efficiency; by-products; Rhizopus; alternative protein; ruminant feed; GAS-PRODUCTION; RICE BRAN; RUMEN FERMENTATION; RHIZOPUS-ORYZAE; POLYSACCHARIDES; FLOUR; STRAW
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: MDPI
Type: Article
DOI: 10.3390/ani11061653
ISSN: 2076-2615
Funder: Basque Government (Department of Economic and Infrastructure Development, Agriculture, Fisheries and Food policy)
Appears in Publication types:Artículos científicos

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