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Title: Climate regime shifts and biodiversity redistribution in the Bay of Biscay
Authors: Guillem Chust; Manuel González; Almudena Fontán; Marta Revilla; Paula Alvarez; María Santos; Unai Cotano; Marina Chifflet; Angel Borja; Iñigo Muxika; Yolanda Sagarminaga; Ainhoa Caballero; Iñaki {de Santiago}; Irati Epelde; Pedro Liria; Leire Ibaibarriaga; Roland Garnier; Javier Franco; Ernesto Villarino; Xabier Irigoien; José A. Fernandes-Salvador; Andrés Uriarte; Xabier Esteban; Dorleta Orue-Echevarria; Tiago Figueira; Adolfo Uriarte
Citation: Science of The Total Environment, 2022, 803, 149622
Abstract: Global ocean warming, wave extreme events, and accelerating sea-level rise are challenges that coastal communities must address to anticipate damages in coming decades. The objective of this study is to undertake a time-series analysis of climate change (CC) indicators within the Bay of Biscay, including the Basque coast. We used an integrated and flexible methodology, based on Generalized Additive Mixed Models, to detect trends on 19 indicators (including marine physics, chemistry, atmosphere, hydrology, geomorphology, biodiversity, and commercial species). The results of 87 long-term time series analysed (~512,000 observations), in the last four decades, indicate four groups of climate regime shifts: 1) A gradual shift associated with CC starting in the 1980s, with a warming of the sea surface down to 100 m depth in the bay (0.10-0.25 °C per decade), increase in air temperature and insolation. This warming may have impacted on benthic community redistribution in the Basque coast, favouring warm-water species relative to cold-water species. Weight at age for anchovy and sardine decreased in the last two decades. 2) Deepening of the winter mixed layer depth in the south-eastern bay that probably led to increases in nutrients, surface oxygen, and chlorophyll concentration. Current increases on chlorophyll and zooplankton (i.e., copepods) biomass are contrary to those expected under CC scenarios in the region. 3) Sea-level rise (1.5-3.5 cm per decade since 1990s), associated with CC. 4) Increase of extreme wave height events of 16.8 cm per decade in the south-eastern bay, probably related to stormy conditions in the last decade, with impacts on beach erosion. Estimating accurate rates of sea warming, sea-level rise, extreme events, and foreseeing the future pathways of marine productivity, are key to define the best adaptation measures to minimize negative CC impacts in the region.
Keywords: Climate change, GAMM, Geomorphology, Sea warming, Marine biodiversity, Anchovy, Extreme events, Benthos, Basque coast
Issue Date: 2022
ISSN: 0048-9697
Appears in Publication types:Artículos científicos

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